This study is on the “assessment of the funding of adult and non-formal education programmes in Bayelsa State”. The study examined the extent of funding of adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State. In line with this, three research questions were posed which included to what extent are funds made available for the procurement of learning materials; the effects of funding on the payment of facilitators, awareness and counselling campaign for adult and non-formal education programmes? The descriptive design was adopted for the study. A total of one hundred and forty four (144) adult learners were selected to constitute the sample from 361 adult learners for the study. The instrument that was used for this study was a researcher-designed questionnaire titled “Assessment of the Funding of Adult and Non – Formal Education Programmes Questionnaire (AFAN-FEPQ)”. Data was analyzed using percentages and the statistical mean for the and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions. The result revealed that the extent to which funds are made available for the procurement of learning materials in adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State is very low; there are dire consequences in poorly funding adult and non-formal education; poor funding causes facilities to fall below standard, poor funding causes abandonment of adult education centres and poor funding causes shortages in the supply of educational materials; awareness and counselling campaign for adult and non-formal education programmes are not carried out in Bayelsa State. Consequently, recommendations were made which included that the Bayelsa State government should pay more attention to the funding of the programme in order that it may be revitalized from its current state.
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1.1 Background to the Study
Adult and non-formal education is a productive human development investment. Thus, financing adult and non formal education is an investment in human development that produces benefits that contributes to national development. Little wonder the percentage of total budgetary allocation to the educational sector as postulated by the United Nations was pegged at twenty six (26%) (UNESCO-IICBA, 2011).
In order to assess the funding nature of adult and non-formal education, it would be necessary to understand the concept first. Carr-Hill (2012) and Okech (2004) asserted that adult education denotes the entire body of ongoing learning processes, formal or otherwise, whereby people regarded as adults by the society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, and improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction to meet their own needs and those of their society.
Besides, Woodhall (2009) defines the term adult education as a wide range of educational activities in which adult takes part and includes vocational education and training, non – vocational courses, correspondence education, and fulltime and part-time courses. The definitions given by the two scholars although talk about enlarged scope of adult education, emphasized adult clientele as recipient of the adult education.
On the other hand, Radcliffe and Colletta (2009) subscribe to the view that non-formal education is any organized educational activity outside the established formal system: whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clientele and teaching objectives. Furthermore, Bock and Bock (2006) defined non-formal education as any organized, systematic educational activity outside the framework of the formal school system designed to provide selective types of learning to particular subgroups in the population, adult as well as children.
The definitions given by these scholars extend the scope of adult education to children and stress the flexibility involved in organization and provision of non-formal education. In view of the foregoing, one may say that adult and non –formal education refers to any educational programme that is organized for all ages regardless of the content, place of study, form of study (part-time or fulltime) once the programme is flexible and is organized to satisfy the needs and aspirations of the beneficiaries and their community. Aderinoye (2004) identifies list of adult and non formal education. Some of them include remedial, adult literacy, open/distance, continuing, extra-mural, preventive, worker’s and agricultural extension programmes, etc.
In funding adult education programmes, there is this assumption that there are benefits that can be obtained either by the individual or by the community. Thus, financing adult education programmes is based on certain consideration, as identified by Ubeku (2005), Akilaiya (2009) and Obanewa (2008). These include: whether the money spent on educational programme is producing the results needed by the individuals and organizations; what improvements can be made to the training/educational procedures in order to reduce the costs and improve efficiency?; whether the type of training given or educational programme provided is necessary to improve individual and organizational effectiveness; whether the money, if spent on another activity, will lead to the attainment of individual and organizational goals.
Mechanisms for comparing costs of a function or programme with its outcomes have been described by a variety of terms, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost utility analysis, operation research, operation analysis, cost quality analysis and cost effectiveness analysis (Hassan, 2004). The terms that appear to have achieved popularity and widest acceptance however, are cost-benefit analysis and cost effectiveness analysis. Meanwhile, cost benefit analysis according to Akilaiya (2009), implies a systematic comparison of the magnitude of the cost and benefits of some form of investment in order to assess its economic profitability; it is used in education because of its investment nature which yields returns. The uses of cost benefits analysis identified here include:
To point the way for allocation of resources, especially financial and human resources available for education.
To provide answer to the question as to who or which body should finance education.
To help find a way of increasing the cost of education so as to increase rate of returns or decrease the cost and increase rate of returns.
Cost-effectiveness analysis is different from cost-benefit analysis, according to Hassan (2004) in Okedara (2009). Benefit is measurable in money unit called return. However, effectiveness may not be measurable in money unit except in some objective criteria of the programme.
As such using cost–effectiveness strategy for evaluation of educational programmes involves paying attention to the following elements of analysis: the area of study; the objectives of the educational programmes stated in behavioural terms; both the cost and alternative costs of the programme must be known; and valid and reliable measures of the attainment of the objectives must be available. In practical terms, financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria takes into account the following cost categories:
i.) The personnel costs incurred at different levels.
ii.) The instructors/ facilitators’ costs.
iii.) Course fees (tuition, examination, instructional materials, etc).
iv.) Equipment and materials.
v.) Building and facilities used for classes.
vi.) Administration, especially fuel, subsistence and other transport costs.
vii.) Learners cost (opportunity costs /earning forgone).
This current study therefore will focus on the level of funding of adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The motivation to conduct this study stems from the perception that the presence of adult and non-formal education is dwindling in Bayelsa State. Before now, adult and non formal education centers were being set up by the government, organizations and individuals. Presently, only privately owned adult education centers are being felt in the state. Worse still, the government owned centers also seems to have been suffering from setbacks which makes some of these adult centers mostly ineffective.
Funds are required for the procurement of learning materials, payment of facilitators, establishment of literacy centers etc. The researcher is worried on the lack of budgeting allocation for the funding of adult and non-formal education. The study therefore is interested in ascertaining the level and extent to which adult and non-formal education is funded. It is against this background that the researcher intends to assess funding of adult and non formal education programmes in Bayelsa State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the funding of adult and non formal education programmes in Bayelsa State. Specifically, it will:
- Determine the level at which funds are provided for the procurement of learning materials in adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State.
- Ascertain the effects of funding on the payment of facilitators of adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State.
- Assess how funds are provided for awareness and counselling campaign for adult and non-formal education programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide the study.
- To what extent are funds made available for the procurement of learning materials in adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State?
- What are the effects of funding on the payment of facilitators of adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State?
- To what extent are funds provided for awareness and counselling campaign for adult and non-formal education programmes?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to several agents in the educational sector especially adult students, teachers, future researchers, school organizations and to the government. To the adult students, this study will serve as one of the numerous studies clamoring for more adult education center to be set up and maintained which will enroll more students. This study will also serve as a push for providing adequate funding for adult and non-formal centers which will enable teachers to teach under more conducive, more facilitated and motivating environment.
The current study will also benefit future researchers. It will serve as part of the basis and reservoir of resources available from which they will articulate materials for their studies. The school as an organization will also benefit from this study. This study will serve as a basis for fund utilization and resource management. Finally, to the government, this study will assist in the area of need assessment to the government in providing professional advice and funding system.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study on assessment of the funding of adult and non formal education programmes in Bayelsa State will be conducted in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. It will cover such areas level of funding, effects of funding and problems of funding adult and non-formal education in Bayelsa State.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
The following keywords are defined as they are used in the study.
Assessment: The act of making a judgment about something; to evaluate or estimate the nature, ability or quality of something.
Funding: This is the provision of finance by the government, private organizations and individuals for use in adult and non-formal education.
Adult Education: The entire body of learning processes, formal or otherwise, whereby people regarded as adults by the society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, and improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction to meet their own needs and those of their society.
Education: An organized educational activity outside the established formal system.
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Contains Chapter One to Five, References and Appendices
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