This research is on the Effects of Improvised Instructional Materials on Student’s Academic Achievement in Accounting Among Senior Secondary School Students in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. Some selected secondary schools which amounted to eight (8) were used for the research. Ten respondents were selected from each of the schools totaling eighty (80) respondents. The researcher then used the instrumentation of the questionnaire to get responses from the respondents by administering the questionnaire to them. Same was collected after two weeks; the result was then collated, analyzed and interpreted thus: that students in Yenagoa Local Government Area lack classrooms and accommodation that can accommodate teachers and students. Moreover, students in the Local Government also lack Library that encourages reading. Recommendations were made among which were the yearly budgetary allocation for the educational sector has to be increased. Companies operating in the state, cooperate bodies, philanthropic organizations etc, should assist in providing these teaching aids for the schools. More hostels, library, classrooms, research centers and laboratories should be built and equipped with modern facilities. The school authority should be conscious of the need to develop programmes on student’s welfare for enhanced teaching and learning to take place.

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1.1   Background to the Study

Student’s performance in secondary schools in Bayelsa State can be assumed to have experienced a continuously poor and falling standard in recent times. This ugly nature however resulted in training out half-baked school leavers from secondary schools.

This current trend is particularly disturbing because the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination is an important examination that is taken yearly which determined the future of the students who sits for it.

Many factors may be responsible for the student’s poor performance; these include inadequate accommodation/classrooms, instructional materials, lack of electricity supply, insufficient textbooks in library, laboratory equipment among others.

Ericson and Curls (2006) stresses the impact of instructional materials as it affects teaching and learning. In their opinion on the importance of instructional material, they said that instructions can develop awareness of problem, open up possibility for exploration, and present meaningful preliminary activities.

It should be noted therefore, that instructional materials are the combination of audio, visual and audio-visual materials employed in the classroom by the teacher to create or ensure better understanding of instruction. For example, a teacher who is teaching the topic “election” can use mock-ups or realia of people voting in the pooling booth as a very good instructional material for such a topic. On the other hand, a teacher teaching ‘the human system’ as a topic for the day can use a dram up skeletal system on a cardboard paper to illustrate how the human body look like without giving mush oral explanation.

Most modern instructional materials need the use of electricity even in the classroom. Some of the instructional materials that are aided with electricity to enable their operation include projectors, the computers, and white interactive boards amongst others.

Unfortunately though, not all secondary schools in the country have electricity in them. Oji and Olunruyomi (2009) opined that majority of schools in Nigeria are not connected to electricity supply and if equipped with generator for regular electricity supply will lay a great financial burden on the government. They added that it is not possible to have electricity supply where technical courses cannot be taught in workshops laying emphasis on the use of common hand tools.

Furthermore, on the prospects of Nigerian educational system, they stated that one of the factors responsible for the nation’s declining educational system was the durability to which affect effective teaching and learning, and the inability of parents to equip their children with adequate textbooks.

Lack of inadequate instructional material in the classroom is a great problem in our educational system and the bulk of this problem is caused by hurrying young teachers who tend to take their classes as quickly as possible thereby passing partial or fragmented knowledge to the students. This incidence has therefore caught the attention of the general public, government functionaries and other Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and as such, these agents have at one point or the other commented, written or publicize the situation in the social media.

The aim of this study therefore, is to identify the effects of improvised instructional material on student’s academic achievement among secondary school students and suggest possible solutions to them.

1.2   Statement of the problem

Lack of materials in secondary schools is generally a serious problem in all the states of the federation. Generally speaking, individuals, journalists and educationalists, have spoken on lack of facilities that improves learning in schools in the country at large.

In order to develop the schools educationally, and to enhance the students’ performance in such schools, the problems of inadequate instructional materials in secondary schools will be examined and possible solution shall be suggested.

For the purpose of this study therefore, the researcher intends to identify the effects of improvised instructional material on student’s academic achievement among secondary school students.

1.3   Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study is to;

  1. promote the use of instructional materials in the state.
  2. examine the level of adequacy of instructional materials in secondary schools.
  3. Determine the effects of improvised instructional materials on teaching and learning.

1.4   Research questions

In order to carry out the study, certain questions will be asked. These include:

  1. how can instructional materials be improved in secondary schools?
  2. what is the level of adequacy of instructional materials in secondary schools?
  3. what are the effects of improvised instructional materials on teaching and learning?

1.5   Significance of the study

This research will be invaluable to the following set of individuals/bodies/agencies.

First of all, this research will enable the government know, ascertain and provide adequate, necessary and appropriate facilities for secondary school and to provide financial incentives to teachers.

Secondly, it will give policy makers the insight to plan for programmes to take care of students with different skills having in mind the need for improved and modern instructional materials that can promote teaching and learning.

The teachers need not be excluded from among the beneficiaries of this research. It will remind them of their original function of using effective instructional materials when teaching in the classroom.

Finally, students and parents alike will also benefit. It will help students appreciate the use of instructional materials as the best way of teaching which is now shifting from traditional means to modern means.

1.6   Scope of the study

This research could have been done in all secondary schools in Bayelsa State since it appears to be a problem in most secondary schools in the state, but due to financial and time constraint, the research will cover all the secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State.

Moreover, this research will also cover all educational variables like the teachers, students, instructional materials, classroom, and teaching and learning.

1.7   Limitation of the study

This research was limited to secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. The problem of transportation hindered effective access to the overall population of the study and most importantly the sampled size. There was also the issue of limited funds, bad road network amongst other barricade which almost hindered or made more difficult the smoothness of this research.

1.8   Operational definition of terms

The following terms were defined as used in this research:

Improvisation: To make or do something using whatever is available usually because what is needed is not handy.

Inadequate: Not good enough for a particular purpose

Instructional Material: Teaching aids used for teaching and learning process in the classroom.

Performance: An act of performing; e.g. doing well in class, a play or a piece of music.

Achievement: Things that someone have done successfully, especially using their own effort and skill.

Effective: Producing the result that is required, wanted or intended or producing a successful result.



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