Two different soil samples (sandy soil and clay soil) were obtained from different locations at Amassoma in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Both soil samples were heated differently to temperature of about c and allowed to cool to room temperature of . The soil samples were sieved using sieve of 500mic for sandy soil and 106 clay soil. The mass of the required soil were measured using weighing balance, the soil samples were grouped into six namely; samples A(100% sandy soil), B(90% sandy soil +10 clay soil), C(80% sandy soil + 20% clay soil), D(70% sandy soil +30% clay soil), E(60% sandy soil+40% clay soil), F(50% sandy soil + 50% clay soil). Water was allow to pass through the different sample groups, the time of first drop), volume of water received, volume of water retained () and average flow rate) in each of the sample groups were obtained. The results obtained showed that “there is a marginal difference between water retained and water received for sample F, and sample C showed no difference between the quantities water received and the quantities water retained.
Keywords: Volume of Water Received, Volume of Water Retained, Time of Drop, Coefficient of Permeability and Clay Soil.
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1.1 Background of the Study
Soil development result to processess of soil profile of different layers, each with distinct texture, structure and colour. Soil texture has a profound effect on soil properties and this is why it is considered important physical properties of soil (Braddy and Weil; 2002). Fluids flow through soil from one region to another as a result of differential hydraulic gradient, fluid flow through the soil is driven by several forces which include hydraulic gradient and force of gravity . (Li et al;1999). Soil pore sizes are important when extimating the rate of fluid flow through soil, water moves through the soil pores either as a result of difference in elevation or varying pressure in water.
Hence, the existence of continuous voids or pore is necessary to flow since it allows the transport of fluid through continuous void,therefore,the ability of the pores to conduct water is controlled mainly by the pore sizes,continuity and distribution of voids in the soil.(Amer ;2002).The physical and chemical behaviour of the soil are significantely influenced by grain sizes which is important in determining the soil hydrologic quality(Adesunloye; 1987) .
Clay soils are distinguished from other fine grained soil by difference in mineralogy and particle sizes.This minerals are formed over time by gradual chemical weathering of rocks. Silicate bearing low carbonic acid which result to clay soil exhibiting plasticity when mixed with water in a certain proportion, clay soil holds more water than the sandy soil which has larger pores and fast percolation rate . (Alabi,2005). Soils within the study area, Amassoma in southern Ijaw local government area of Bayelsa state, Nigeria, exhibit moderately slow movement of fluid ,this is attributed to high clay with minerals and sand content in the percentage ratio of 82 to 15 for clay and sand . (Omange et al; 1988).
1.1 Aims and Objectives of Study
- To determine the flow rate of water saturated soil in a mixture of disturbed sandy and clay soils.
- To determine the water retentive capacity for various percentages of clay and sand mixtures.
1.2 Significance of Study
- This study will provide a base-line in studying the features of underground seapage in related soil samples.
- This study will provide information on effects of clay soil on water flow rate through sandy soil and consequently reveal appropriate percentage of clay and sand mixture required in different applications.
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