Project Writing Made Easy: A step-by-step guide on project writing
Second edition Printed 2015 All Rights reserved.
Published by: MJERC Publishers Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. 08060699054 08050706635 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Over the years, most final year students of Universities has shown and have continued to show deficiencies in writing their research reports. These inefficiencies cannot be deviated from the lack of effective grooming from their first level in school. Research project is a course that was supposed to be taught from 100 level in school down till the third year so that by the time these students enter their final year, they would have very little or no problem in conducting their studies. But instead of this, most Departments and Faculties give little or no attention to research projects from the early stage thereby creating huge problems for students in their final year. Most students face project writing in this final level as a new course altogether. The author also faced the same problem. Little things we ought to know in research were not known until injury time so when most of us were asked to write proposals, we were like “what is a proposal?”We never knew what it was. So many things we did wrongly, we have to pay the price with cancellation of our work upon cancellation. We paid more to typist during this course. What could have been done trice we did tenfold.
It was against this backdrop that the author is poised to put this book together to assist whomever it may concern especially final year students in the Faculty of Education to present their study in a better framework.
Michael O. J.
Download full material here: Research Project Second Edition
Writing a research project is one task that is very difficult. This difficulty mostly arise from the fact that most students were not properly groomed to engage in the writing of factual or mini projects in their previous levels. This lack of proper grooming has continued to impact on the way most undergraduates present their studies. Most students lack ‘good sense’ of sentence construction while others have issues relating to sourcing and utility of materials. All these have perplexed most students in Nigeria when they are faced with the reality of project writing.
Unfortunately, students do not realize how easy project writing could be when the materials and the knowledge or skills of streamlining and putting these varied materials together are within them. The first step in project writing is the conceptualization of your topic of interest. Students have to realize the importance of this selection of topic of interest. In engaging in research projects, it is believed that there is a lacuna in a field of study or a subset of such field. Therefore, it is the researcher’s position to seek peoples’ opinion or use existing facts (where such study is a secondary information based study) to ascertain the true state or veracity of such space/gap and also give recommendations as to how such space/gap could be bridged or filled. It is against this backdrop that much blame is placed on lecturers in institutions of learning who are fond of tampering with project topics submitted to them only for them to either change the topics or ask such students to submit other topics where the submitted ones are somewhat irrelevant. This attitude is borne out of their belief that students have ‘already-made’ materials on such topic, and so, it would seem like a ‘backfire’ if such topic is to be changed. This practice is never recommended. What such lecturers should have done would have been to check the materials submitted to them on chapter one to three and see if such study was copied from already made project or not. A project which is freshly put together will have source documents such as printed materials from the net, books and full project works from which such student partially copied from. The fact should be established that no work can be done without copying from already existing works, but the authenticity and originality of your work depends on how careful you were in putting varied materials together instead of depending on just one material.
The next step in project writing is the submission of your preferred topic to your supervisor or the Department’s project coordinator. Where such topic was not approved, you will be requested to bring more valid topics. The coordinator or supervisor may restructure a particular topic if such was not originally ordered for a student to research on. Immediately your topic is approved, you will be requested to write a research proposal.
Till this very moment, it is surprising that students are still at lost as to what a project proposal is all about. A project proposal is the structure, frame, skeleton and guide of your study. It is material you formulate personally indicating why, where and how you intend to carry out the full study. Further, it also shows the set of people your study will benefit (1.5 significance of study) and the methods you intend to use. Significantly, you can now see that proposals centers on chapter one to three. This is why students are always asked to bring their chapter one to three before venturing into the other two chapters (chapter four and five). On the other hand, the mode of writing proposals is slightly, I mean slightly different from the real project. The difference centers on future tense and past tense. When we say future tense, we mean you will be using words like ‘will be’ all through the proposal. After the proposal, you will be asked to change to future tense, which means you will then change all the ‘will be’ to ‘was’ or ‘were’..
The places where you will likely use these words include purpose of the study. E.g.
The major purpose of this study ‘will be’ to identify the development of entrepreneurial skills through a sustainable business education programme in tertiary institutions using Bayelsa and rivers state as the case study. Specifically, the study ‘will’ determine the extent to which…(Bristol, 2014).
Please take note of the two places where will be and will were used. After proposal defence, the above purpose of study will read thus:
The major purpose of this study ‘was’ (or you may us ‘is’) to identify the development of entrepreneurial skills through a sustainable business education programme in tertiary institutions using Bayelsa and rivers state as the case study. Specifically, the study determined the extent to which… (ibid).
Notice here again that determine was changed to determined. The whole of chapter two may not have this change. The next point is chapter three – the methodologies. The following examples on the differences between proposal and main project are given below.
Proposal: Research Design
The design for this study will be a descriptive survey. Nwankwo (2006) defined descriptive survey as the study in which the researcher collects data from a large sample drawn from a given population and describes certain features of the work which are of interest to the researcher. The findings from this study are generalized to the population from which the sample was drawn (Alazigha, 2014).
The design for this study was a descriptive survey. Nwankwo (2006) defined descriptive survey as the study in which the researcher collects data from a large sample drawn from a given population and describes certain features of the work which are of interest to the researcher. The findings from this study are generalized to the population from which the sample was drawn (ibid).
Instead of was in this case, you may decide to use the present tense ‘is’. This depends on the timeless nature of the sentence and the author’s will or choice of words. Please, remember that you will have to do your proposal defence before you change these past tense to present or future tense.
Other parts of proposals include references and questionnaire. All the references in a project are always centered on chapter one and two. Some students may cite an author when defining the survey design they use. In this case, there will be just one citation in chapter three. In chapter five, the citations to be used will be citations from chapter two. These citations were reapplied to buttress the findings, so, they will not appear twice in the references. Further information on reference and questionnaire will be provided later.
The front matter referred to all the preambles that comes before chapter one. It starts from title page to abstract.
- Title page
The title page is the first page after the hard cover. (usually navy blue in faculties of Education)The title page consist of the title of the study, the name of the researcher and matriculation number with a statement which reads ‘a project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science Education (B.Sc. ed) Degree of Niger Delta University. This is followed by the month and year of submission. A sample of the title page is show below:
INFLUENCE OF PRINCIPALS’ SUPERVISORY COMPETENCIES ON TEACHERS’ USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN LESSON DELIVERY IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAYELSA STATE
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE EDUCATION (B.SC ED) DEGREE OF NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY
(adapted from Ivwighre, 2014).
In teacher Education, the requirements are still the same but in Educational Foundations, there is a little change in the final part of the title page. It is written thus:
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B. ED) DEGREE IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING/ECONOMICS OF NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY
Please, ensure that the title page covers a whole page.
Certification is the approval or consent page of the Department indicating that such project was carried out in the Department. A typical certification will look like this.
We certify that this research on Influence of Principals’ Supervisory Competencies on Teacher’s use of Instructional Materials in Lesson Delivery in Selected Secondary Schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, was carried out by Ivwighre Benedicta of the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor of Science Education Degree B.Sc. (Ed.) of the Niger Delta University.
Mrs. Stella I. Wellington …….………………… ……….…………………
Project Supervisor Signature Date
Dr. F. C. Akpotohwo ……….………………… ……….…………………
Head of Department Signature Date
Prof. A. C. Egumu ……….………………… ……….…………………
Dean, Faculty of Education Signature Date
Prof. B. O. Nwosu
External Examiner ……….………………… ……….…………………
You are expected to dedicate your work to somebody. While some people dedicate their work to God, their families and friends, it would be more professional to dedicate your work to either your parents, husband, wife, child, or somebody other than these that is very dear to your heart or has been very instrumental to your study. Make it short and brief as you can and it should be in one page. Example is shown below.
This research project is dedicated to Almighty God whose handwork during my four years stay in this institution is well acknowledged(Julius, 2014).
Note that your supervisor may ask you to dedicate your work to a family member instead of to God because God will later come in under acknowledgements.
This is an appreciation to contributors to your academic career. By this we mean those people who made your study a success. This includes God, you supervisor, lecturers in the Faculty, your family members, friends and colleagues. Agents to appreciate should be arranged in separate paragraphs. Carefully look at the following example.
On a very serious note, I wish to first and foremost acknowledge Almighty God who through his infinite mercies and love ensured my very existence down the stream of life. To him, I say “may your name be glorified”
Secondly, I wish to thank my project supervisor Mr. Theophilus Ehimen, who through persistent effort and consistent proofreading made sure that this research work was successfully undertaken.
My heart swells with appreciation to my biological parents Mr. and Mrs. Julius Ahwusi Aki, for their struggle for our survival. Also to all my elder sisters,Miss Jubilee Aki, Mrs. Ruth Ese, Miss Gloria Aki, Miss Ofejiro Aki, my younger brother Master Kelvin Obruche Aki who supported me financially and most specially Miss Favour Aki who stood as a mentor to me.
I also wish to appreciate my lecturers in the Department of Vocational and Industrial Education – Mr. Ikati Lawrence and Dr. F. C. Akpotohwo to whom I see as very exemplary lecturers in the Department, my Head of Department, Dr. J. O. M. Amasuomo, Dr. Igbongidi, Prof. A. C. Egumu who through their ardent lecturing, tutoring, shaping, molding and instruction shaped my thinking and changed my orientation for the better over the past few years. To my departmental friends, roommates, and other faculty colleagues, Omene Marvin Onoriode, Egbe Ariemi, Ephroncha Akpomedaye, Ikuli Patrick, Apollos Asiaka, Austin Abu, and all students in the department of Vocational and Industrial Education, they all have been very wonderful friends all the way.
Finally, I cannot forget my closest friends at home who at one time or the other behaved like brothers to me, they are Aboli Kares, Asama Joshua Smith, Ozor Abdiel, and my bosom friend Miss Sharon Ofejiro. I love you all (Julius, 2014).
Please manage words as much as possible to restrict your acknowledgements to just one page.
- Table of Contents
Table of contents is an arrangement of chapter topics and subtopics in order of appearance while the pages in which they appear are indicated for easy location. A typical table of contents is shown below.
Table of Contents
Title page: i
Dedication : iii
Table of contents: v
List of tables: vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study: 1
- Statement of the problem: 6
- Purpose of the study: 7
- Research questions: 8
- Significance of the study: 9
- Scope of the study: 9
- Operational definition of terms: 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Historical development of accounting: 11
2.1.1 Development of accounting in Nigeria: 14
2.2 Conceptual review of the study: 15
2.3 Competency of accounting teachers in secondary Schools: 19
2.4 Effectiveness of accounting teachers in secondary School: 20
2.5 Constraints of teaching accounting in secondary Schools: 23
2.5.1 Qualification of teachers: 23
2.5.2 Accounting period: 25
- Motivation of teachers: 25
2.6 Accounting curriculum: 25
2.7 Review of related empirical evidence: 26
2.8 Summary of review of related Literature: 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
- Design of the study: 30
- Population of the study: 30
- Sample and sampling technique: 31
- Instrumentation: 31
- Validity of Instrument: 31
- Reliability of instrument: 32
- Administration of Instrument: 32
- Method of data analysis: 32
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDING
- Analysis of research questions: 34
- Discussion of finding: 39
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary: 41
5.2 Conclusion: 42
5.3 Educational implication of the study: 42
5.4 Recommendations: 43
5.5 Limitations of the study: 43
5.6 Suggestions for further research: 44
- List of tables
This is a compilation of all the tables in your study. Tables are usually found in chapter three under population or sampling technique and in chapter four under demographic data of respondents and research questions. The list of tables is written like the table of content. The title of is written then the page it is located is indicated at the end of the line. Check the example below.
Table 4.1: Percentage distribution of respondents based on class
Source: Tuoma (2014)
List of tables
4.1: Percentage distribution of respondents based on class (indicate page)
- List of figures
This is same as the list of tables above. What you are required to do is to get the title of the figure and the page such figure is located.
This is a complete rundown (more or less a summary) of your work. Please, take note that you cannot write an abstract when you have not finished your work as some students had made this error. Your abstract should contain your topic, where and why you intended to carry out the study, the methodologies used, some of your findings and recommendations. Your abstract must be concise and devoid of unnecessary tautology. (Within 100 -250 words)It must be single line spaced with no paragraph or italics. Your supervisor may also ask you to italicize. Check the following example.
This study is on students’ attributes and their academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools of Patani Local Government Area, Delta State. It was conducted to ascertain how age, location, parents’ socio-economic status and gender influences students’ academic performance. The study was conducted in senior secondary schools in Patani Local Government Area, Delta State with a population of eight hundred and thirty three (833) students and a sample of two hundred and fifty (250) respondents. Data collection was through a self-made questionnaire that was administered to the respondents. The questionnaire titled ‘Student’s Attributes and their Academic Performance in Economics Questionnaire (SAAPEQ)’ was validated by the supervisor after making corrections to it. The questionnaire instrument was used for data collection and the responses retrieved thereof were collated and analyzed using mean. The findings revealed that there is no influence of age on student’s academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools. School location influences students’ academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools. Parental socio-economic status influences students’ academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools and that there is no influence of gender on students’ academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools. Subsequently, recommendations were made which included that students should not depend on their age for academic performance in economics. Students should attend schools located in good environment especially in the urban areas where schools are well equipped.
Background to the Study
Background to the study or Background of study as most Departments will use it is intended to pre-empt a reader on the content and why the researcher carried out the study. Most students engage in the habit of writing on varied content instead of focusing on the objectives of their study. As a prospective researcher, it is believed that before you start writing your work, you would have gathered a lot of materials. From these materials you have gathered, you will have to pen down your objectives (usually four objectives). Prearranging your objectives is very necessary because it guides you in writing the background to the study. The first paragraph of your background to the study should be focused and direct to the point. You should not use it to write vague statement. For example, a topic on Causes of Test Anxiety Among Secondary School Students and Counselling Implication in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State started like this.
The general challenge of dealing with anxiety is not peculiar to workers in the workplace alone. As there are many factors which causes humans to become anxious, secondary school students also have their share of anxiety and emotional expressions. One of the popular anxieties found among secondary school students is test anxiety. This is the state of anxiety students find their selves when faced with particular test, examinations or other forms of assessment (Akpoebi, 2014).
You can see for yourself that the first paragraph already made sense, so, it would be difficult for you supervisor to start his/her cancellation work in your first paragraph.
After this first paragraph, you will immediately need to start defining and explaining the relevant terms found in your topic. You don’t need to waste any paragraph in making irrelevant statements. This is where you will need to read and re-read all sentences. Your argument presentation must be valid and sound. You need not jump from one point to another, rather, you should join the points so that your work makes a lot of sense when your supervisor is previewing it. For the topic exemplified above, you will need to define Test, Anxiety, Test Anxiety and Counselling. After all relevant terms have been explained, then, bring your objectives in and discuss them briefly before looking for a concluding paragraph to end your background to the study.
Statement of the Problem
Statement of the Problem is a presentation of the antecedents to the study. It is believed that there were problems on ground which led you to carry out a study on such topic. So, where are the problems? This is where you will start outlining them one after the other. In presenting your Statement of the Problems, avoid using words like ‘it has been found’, it was discovered’. If you use these words, it means that the study has already been carried out and there would be no need for such study. Instead, you make use of words like ‘it may have been’, ‘it seems like’, it was postulated that’. These words shows uncertainty and because they had not been verified, hence, your study. Your Statement of the Problem should also focus on your four variables. Note the following example on Challenges of Career Development in Business Education in Relation to Modern Technology, using Niger Delta University as a Case Study.
For the past two years, diligent and valid efforts have been made especially by the administrators of Business Education to restructure the curriculum of the programme to meet current demands. The management has tried to ensure that the issue of career guidance plays a major role in the development of students’ career throughout their four year course. For this reason, the Vocational Technological Education course (VTE 422) was exceptionally instituted to assist students in the area of their career choice.
Despite all these efforts, graduates of Business Education still seem to roam in the cities like their counterpart who studies general grammatical education. This is not supposed to be so. Business Education students are supposed to be self reliant, businessmen and women, self confident and so on. Regrettably, some students may not have business orientation in their mind before they graduated so when they did, it was like starting all over. It is against this regrettable state of affair that the researcher intends to investigate the challenges of career development in Business Education in relation to modern technology, using Niger Delta University as a case study (Bristol,2014).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of your study still remains the four objectives you wrote about in background of the study. In order for your work to make a lot of sense, you don’t have to deviate from the objectives you explained in your background to the study and statement of the problem. There are two types of objectives – general and specific objectives. The general objective is your topic, while the specific objectives are those key areas of your study. A typical purpose of study is as follows with the topic: Developing Entrepreneurial Skills through a Sustainable Business Education Programme in Tertiary Institutions in Bayelsa and Rivers States:
The major purpose of this study is to identify the development of entrepreneurial skills through a sustainable business education programme in tertiary institution using Bayelsa and Rivers State as the case study. Specifically, the study determined the extent to which:
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances technical skills in entrepreneurship.
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances human skills in entrepreneurship.
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances conceptual skills in entrepreneurship(Bristol,2014).
The research questions are just repetition of the objectives but converted into question form. Watch the way the above objectives will be turned into questions.
- To what extent does sustainable Business Education programme enhances technical skills in entrepreneurship?
- To what extent does sustainable Business Education programme enhances human skills in entrepreneurship?
- To what extent does Sustainable Business Education programme enhances conceptual skills in entrepreneurship? (Bristol, 2014).
Research hypotheses are intended to test the veracity, trueness and acceptability of your results. Firstly, you will have to make postulations or generalizations. These generalizations follow from your objectives. E.g.
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances technical skills in entrepreneurship.
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances human skills in entrepreneurship.
- Sustainable Business Education programme enhances conceptual skills in entrepreneurship (Bristol, 2014).
Significance of the study
Significance here simply means importance or usefulness. It means to what extent would your study benefit individuals, and who are these individuals? You as a researcher is in the position to identify those beneficiaries and how your study would benefit them. A topic on Identifying Effective Marketing Strategies in Business Education as a Tool for the Development of Small Scale Enterprises in Yenagoa metropolis has the following significance.
This study on Business Education; a tool for developing marketing strategy in small scale enterprise in Yenagoa will benefit the following people. Business Education students who form the basis for the study. This study will assist them to acquire basic marketing strategies necessary for their business growth. Business educators: This study will help educators to develop the curriculum in such a way that it includes teaching students the skills that will enable them sustain their businesses. This study will also proof beneficial to consumers because the marketing strategies to be taught here will include strategies that will make business owners creates products that will satisfies consumers the more, creates more consumer awareness through adverts and bring the product closer to the people. Finally, this study will also benefit the government of Bayelsa state to know where to come in assisting small scale businesses in the state(Dike, 2014).
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study refers to the extent of your study. Where does the work cover? Is it the whole of Nigeria or just a small organization? I call this a ‘locational scope’, or in general terms, geographic scope – meaning the location your study covers. Some supervisors may also demand that your scope should cover only your objectives. This is a ‘contextual scope’, meaning your scope will center on the extent of your objectives. Examples of both are shown below.
This study is concerned with the impact of computer technology on accounting system and effects on employment. This study was carried out in Niger Delta University using accounting students in the Department of Vocational and Technology Education (Okuboere, 2014).
This study was intended to investigate the challenges of educational facilities for effective learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary school system. It will focus on how educational facilities affect learning outcomes, the level of educational facilities in Nigerian secondary schools, government’s attitude towards the improvement of educational facilities and the level of funding of education in Nigeria as against the United Nations stipulation (Owan,2014).
Operational Definition of Terms
Here, you will have to define the keywords you used as they were used in your study. It doesn’t really matter what they mean on a general note, what matters is how you used them or what you used them to mean. For example, the word ‘copy’ means to re-write a note on another sheet of paper but is also mean imitating or looking like someone. So under this circumstance, you will have to tell your readers what your keywords meant. Note that your keywords are always found in your topic.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
You may introduce your chapter two, but ensure not to use the subtopic Introduction. E.g.
This chapter is designed to review related literature used under the following subheadings
- Theoretical framework
- Conceptual review
- Relevance of these concepts to the field of study
- Review of related empirical studies
- Summary of literature review
This simply means one single theory propounded by an author that concerns your work. Do not make the same mistake of defining words in your theoretical framework. You must not use a statement like ‘Michael (2009) defined’. This reveals that you are yet to know what you are doing and the next thing is a red biro on you work.
Here is what you need to do. First of all, look for a theory that soothes your work. Theories are generalized conclusions made by authors as a result of their study. These conclusions help decision makers in making decisions. You may still want to see some examples of theories. Here are examples.
Douglas Mcgregor’s Theory X and Y
William Glasser’s Control Theory
Social learning theory
Douglas McGregor’s theory of human behavior
Alert theory of entrepreneurship
Peter Drucker’s theory of entrepreneurship
Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructive theories. etc
Now that you have known what theories are, the next step is to source for one that mostly suits your topic. (note that theories cannot be applied to some study because of the nature of the topic, in that case you continue with conceptual framework without adding theoretical framework to your study).After getting your theory, you look for the author and the year the theory was propounded. When you start writing your theoretical framework, first of all state the author, the year then the theory. After this, you use one page to narrate what the theory is all about. If you have more meaningful information to write about the theory, you can continue till the next page but don’t make it lengthy. Then use the last paragraph to tell why you adopted such theory. This last point is very important. Check the following example.
Yerkes and Dodson’s 1908 Law of Drive Theory
The study was informed by the Inverted –U-Principle theory, which is derived from Yerkes and Dodson’s Law of Drive Theory (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). The theory links arousal to performance, and it is also referred to as the theory of ‘Arousal and Performance.
According to McCandless (2007), ‘arousal’ is the level of excitement or activation generated in the central nervous system to trigger production of the energy required to perform a desired task. The level of arousal of energy experienced by the individual determines the effectiveness of that individual’s performance of the task at hand. The U principle theory’s argument is that if arousal increases, performance would increase as well, but if arousal became too great and continuously, then performance would deteriorate (Galvin, 1994). This means that during onset of the arousal state, the individual would still feel confident in his/her ability to control the arousal pressure, and performance would continue to improve.
However, once the arousal becomes too great, the individual would start to doubt his/her ability to cope, and her/his performance would automatically begin to drop. There is therefore a progressive relationship between a person’s level of arousal and the ability to function effectively. However, when the person is too anxious, the anxiety may interfere with performance because his/her concentration tends to focus too much on his/her anxiety build-up process to the extent that he/she loses focus of the task at hand. The shift of attention gives a leeway to continue rising levels of anxiety, leading to the person’s inability to maintain the balance that would enable them perform effectively.
The arousal-performance process progresses gradually, beginning from a lower level, to optimum (top of the U) and to high levels. At each level the individual’s functioning capacity is altered to conform to the arousal-performance interaction. As arousal increases, so too does the quality of performance which gradually improves until it reaches the optimum point – (top of the inverted ‘U’). If the arousal is increased beyond this point, then performance begins to decline, and when the arousal is too high that the individual is “psyched up”, performance almost diminishes (Rathus & Nevid, 1995).
This theory was adopted because it sought to explain why students becomes unnecessarily nervous and anxious thereby scoring very low or engaging in examination malpractices.
Please, take note of the last paragraph, it is used to tell why you as the researcher adopts such theory.
Conceptual review simply means the explanation of all necessary concepts in your study. For a student conducting a study on Adequacy of Entrepreneurship Education and its Impact on the Economic Development in Higher Education Institutions in Bayelsa State, such student will have to define Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Education and Economic Development. Such student does not need to define Adequacy, Impact, Higher Education Institutions although they should be defined in Operational Definition of Terms. Moreover, you must not jump from one concept to another as most students do. When you are defining Entrepreneurship, you should be careful to complete anything that has to do with entrepreneurship before delving into another concept.
Review of Related Empirical Studies
This section of your work is related to the findings and conclusions of studies already conducted that are related to your work. What you do here is to browse for materials with almost or the same topic with your own topic. What you will use in such work is the topic, the methodologies used, some findings and some recommendations. You will have to source for two or three different work like this to back your work. At the end, you will have to tell why you decided to use such study to back your work. Read the following example carefully.
Review of Related Empirical Studies
In an empirically related study, Akande (2011) carried out a survey on ‘the impact of entrepreneurial skills on self development’. The study was conducted in Uganda with a sample of 450 students. Akande found that more responses were in favor of items concerning the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills fosters positive self development. From his findings, Akande concluded that the most relevant skills to the prospective entrepreneur are conceptual skills and interpersonal/communication/human skills. With the acquisition of these skills, the entrepreneur can improve his business. Akande however, noted that although other skills are necessary and relevant, the entrepreneur can also employ the services of others who have these skills but without conceptual and human skills, the entrepreneur cannot even conceptualize his business in the first place before talking of communicating with customers.
Akande’s (2003) study is relevant to this study because the study tend to investigate how entrepreneurial skills can contribute to the development of the individual although the present study went further to see how entrepreneurial skills can be developed through a sustainable business education programme.
Further, Bharti (2007) also conducted a study on ‘entrepreneurial skills and work effectiveness’. Of the 92 respondents used for the study, 87 respondents agreed that acquisition of competent entrepreneurial skills contribute to the successes achieved in the workplace. Bharti concluded that employees who are effective and successful in their workplace are those who know what they are doing and are motivated to do them. Bharti recommended that in order to be effective in the world of work, tertiary institutions must instill competent skills in students that will make them to be effective workers in the workplace (Bristol, 2014).
Relevance of Concepts Defined in your Study
Personally speaking, this is one part of the whole project that I really want the Department to scrap off because it adds little or no sense to the study. This is so because these terms or concepts you are required to show their relevance are already defined.
Be that as it may, this section demands that you tell your readers how the concepts you defined in your conceptual review are related to your study. So, if your topic is ‘Motivational Influences on Consumer Buying Behaviour in Tertiary Institutions’, you will then have to define motivation, influences, consumer, behavior, and consumer buying behavior in your Conceptual Review. After this, under your Relevance of Concepts Defined, you will have to tell your reader how motivation, influences, consumer, behavior, and consumer buying behavior are related to your work.
Summary of Review of Related Literature
95 percent of students are fallible to the errors that occur here. They write vaguely on different issues which is not the concern of this chapter. What this section demands is that you will have to summarize the chapter subtopic by subtopic. This means that you will have to summarize your theoretical framework first, then enter your conceptual review. From there, you go to your review of related empirical studies, and relevance of concepts. Your summary should not be more than two pages – this is when your work is voluminous – else you make it just one page.
The Niger Delta University Faculty of Education project format does not require you to start this chapter with an introductory subtopic. But you can start it with an introductory statement like:
This chapter gives insight into the research methods and procedures used in this study. It is also sub-divided into the following sub-headings (Sunday, 2014).
Your introduction should be reduced to between one to three lines and not a full page.
A design is a layout or blueprint of the procedures a researcher should use for testing his assumptions or hypothesis. It helps the researcher to know the type of observation to make and the type of statistical analysis to use. There are various types of educational research design. The ones we will concern ourselves with include ex-post facto design and survey design.
Ex-post factor design
This involves the collection of any information that is already in place. The researcher does not generate the information himself but rather, uses them in their natural occurrence. Suppose we wish to study the effect of sex on academic achievement, we have to use males and females as they are because we cannot manipulate sex. Or let us take for example, we wish to carry out a study on the effect of parents’ academic qualification on students’ academic performance. In this case, you also need to use the qualification of parents as supplied by the parents through the questionnaire. This is because you cannot change the qualification. The only thing that you as the researcher can do is to collect these information and analyze it according to your study.
A survey is one in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire population or group. Survey design can be classified in different ways based on purpose or procedure used like descriptive survey, public opinion survey, developmental survey, questionnaire survey, and interview survey.
Please note that there are several other types of research design, but they may be too complex for this book as an easy project guide. You may want to refer to other books for other study designs.
In writing your research design, you have to state the type of design you are using and the reason for adopting such design.
Population of the Study
This is the total amount of people you are studying. You don’t have to be afraid of your population because it is too large. What you do is to select a sample out of it for your study. If your study is on senior secondary school students in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, then you will have to go the Ministry of Education in Yenagoa to get the total number of only public schools in Yenagoa LGA. From the sheet you will be given, you will get the total number of schools and students class by class. So, you have to trace it down to SSI to SSIII, depending on the number of classes you decide to study. As a researcher, the choice is within you to either choose one class or use the three classes. Most students choose only one class in order to minimize their population. Some students use only SSIII because their work borders on career development, and career has to do with upper classes.
So, for you studying only SSIII students, you would have to trace the total of SSIII students in each school and total same by the total number of schools. This will give you your population of study. Check the following sample.
Table 3.1: Population distribution by school in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area
|S/No.||Names of schools||Male||Female||Total|
|14||CSS, PERE MABIRI||13||7||20|
|17||CSS, KOLUAMA II||20||12||42|
Source: Statistics Department, Ministry of Education, Yenagoa (2014) in Akpoebi (2014).
You can see that the population in this sample is 1352.
Sample and Sampling Technique
In the academic arena, it is believed that it is near impossible or it will be tedious for you to study the whole of your population especially where such population is large. Therefore, it is required that you select a fraction (usually 60 percent) of your population for the study. This amount selected is known as the sample for the study.
Now, how did you select your sample? This is where sampling technique comes in. Sampling technique is the system you used in selecting your sample. You may decide to use judgmental sampling, cluster sampling, simple random sampling and so on (more information on sampling techniques will be discussed in volume two).
The stratified random sampling technique was used to select thirty percent (30%) of the total population which is two hundred and fifty (250) respondents. This number constitutes the sample for the study (Ebikibena, 2014).
Instrumentation or research instrument refers to the tool used in collecting data for the study. The most popular instruments for research projects are usually the questionnaire and test instrument/questions.
The questionnaire is an instrument used in collecting information for your study. Your questionnaire should start with a letter of appeal addressed to the respondent assuring him/her that any information given would be kept confidential. The later part of the questionnaire should contain two sections, section A and B. Section A should contain columns for getting demographic data from the respondents like age, sex, qualification etc. depending on the demands of your topic. For example, some topics may not demand for age, or qualification but only sex or class. So, it is expected that you use your topic to choose the type of demographic information you would request your respondents to give. The section B should contain your research items. Each research question should have at least four items. In the event that you have only three research questions, then you can increase your items to five or six per question.
Validity of instrument
Validity refers to the extent to which an instrument is able to cover that purpose to which it was formulated. This is a question of how well does your items in the questionnaire align with your study? Is your demographic column seeking for students’ qualification when your study is on student’s test anxiety? Are your items on local government when your study is on federal government? The issue here is on whether your items are in line with your study.
There are three phases of validity – the face, construct and content validity. These are the mere paper formulation, the way you arrange and align the instrument and the items on it respectively.
The people to validate your instrument are your supervisor and at least two other research experts in your department or in other department but in the same faculty. You will submit copies of your work to them, they will make corrections to it and after such corrections your instrument can now be termed as valid.
Three separate research experts including the supervisor from the same department carried out the face, content and construct validity of the instrument. The supervisor on his part analyzed the face value of the instrument, another research expert looked at the content value of the instrument while the other expert reviewed the construct value of the instrument if it is satisfactorily constructed. The corrections and suggestions made to it were finally applied to ensure the instrument was validated.
Reliability of instrument
Reliability refers to consistency. How consistent is your instruments? Reliability is measured with the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). You are to administer your instrument to two separate set of students who are not part of the original sample. The number of instrument you will administer may not really be exactly the amount of your sample. So, if your sample is 250 you may decide to administer only 20 instruments in the two separate administrations. This process of administering your questionnaire twice is known as the test re-test method. The result you get from the two separate tests would then be correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). The result of any good calculation would always fall between 1 to 1.0.This is how you are to translate your result.
1.00 – 0.80 = perfect positive relationship
0.80 –0.60 = high (strong) positive relationship
0.60 – 0.40 = low (weak) positive relationship
0.40 – 0.20 = very weak or no relationship
0.20 – -1.00 = perfect negative relationship
The reliability of the instrument was determined using the test- retest method. The administration of the instrument was carried out twice within an interval of two weeks and the scores obtained were used to establish the reliability value using the analysis of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, which yielded 0.76. This value was considered to be highly reliability for the study.
Administration of instrument
This is the process of giving your instrument out to your targeted respondents. You are to distribute/administer to only the total number of sample you are studying. You are also expected to tell your readers how many you administered and how many you retrieved.
20 copies of the questionnaire were personally administered to respondents (teachers) in the sampled schools. This was done after permission from the school principals. They responded to the items of the questionnaire and same was collected from them after two weeks. All questionnaires distributed were retrieved indicating 100 percent retrieval (Asamowei, 2014).
Method of Data Analysis
Method of data analysis refers to the process you used in analyzing the data you retrieved from your questionnaire. There are several methods of analyzing your data, but the first two that will be useful to you here are the mean and standard deviation and the simple percentage counts. The method to adopt would depend on the topic you are working on. Your supervisor should be able to tell you what method to adopt. This should be so because the mean and standard deviation cannot be applied to all topics, some topics demands simple percentage counts. Therefore, your Method of Data Analysis would look like this.
After collecting the data, they were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean was used to analyze the collected data. A standard/criterion mean of 2.50 was used as a yardstick for accepting or rejecting computed mean scores. That is, mean scores of 2.49 and less were rejected, while mean scores of 2.50 and above were accepted (Numontei, 2014).
Note that the researcher whose work was cited above used four (4) point rating scale this is why 2.50 appeared in his work. In the event that you used five (5) point rating scale, you have to use 3.0 as your criterion mean.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Demographic Analysis of Respondents
This is the analysis of personal information provided by the respondents. Demography information supposed to include name, but in order to ensure confidentiality of respondents’ responses, such information as names are not required. You are to source for information on age, category (teacher/student, depending on whether you are researching on teachers and students), sex, class along with any other information useful to your study.
This section gives the total number of respondents in a particular group e.g. females or males under sex, and also the percentage of such group to the total number of respondents. Some supervisors usually ask their supervisees to take all demographic data to appendices, but in the event you are not asked to do that, this is what you will need to do.
Table 4.1: Respondents’ distribution by category
Source: Ukpe (2014).
Table 4.2: Respondents’ distribution by sex
Source: Ukpe (2014).
Please, note that the amount of tables you will have depends on the amount of boxes you provided for demographic data in your questionnaire.
Analysis of Research Questions
This section is the real body of your work. This is where the whole calculation takes place. This section will familiarize you with the calculation thereby making you independent in carrying out your study.
The first step here is to write out your items and their rating in a table. E.g.
Analysis of research questions
4.2 Research question one: To what extend can lack of adequate facilities be responsible for the problems of Vocational Education programme in tertiary institutions in the training of youths?
Table 4.–: Analysis of research question one
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?|
|2||The workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments?|
|3||The machines are functioning well.|
|4||Vocational education can be well taught without the use of adequate facilities.|
Criterion mean = 2.50(Oguara, 2014).
Note here again that the example above is a four (4) point rating scale thus, you have SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, D = Disagree, and SD = Strongly Disagree. In five (5) point rating, you will have SA, A, UD, D, and SD.The only difference between both ratings is the UD (Undecided).
Next, calculate the number of respondents that checked SA to item one and write it under SA in item one in your table. For example, let us say your sample is 200 and 34 respondents responded SA, 66 responded A, 70 responded D while 30 responded SD all for item one. The total must equal 200 or where some questionnaires were unretrieved, then, the total must equal the amount retrieved. Let us say that during the collection of your questionnaires, you were unable to retrieve ten out of the two hundred questionnaires, then, your total becomes one hundred and ninety.This is how you are to post your data.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30||66||70||30|
|2||The workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments?|
|3||The machines are functioning well.|
|4||Vocational education can be well taught without the use of adequate facilities.|
At this point, you must know that the rating is numbered as follows: SA = 4, A = 3, D = 2 and SD = 1for four (4) point rating scale and SA = 5, A = 4, UD = 3, D = 2 and SD = 1 for five (5) point rating scale.Therefore, you are to pin this numbers to each of the rating in the table. E.g.
Four (4) point rating scale
Five (5) point rating scale
Some supervisors may not really allow you to write these numbers in your tables, but they are written here for the purpose of making you to understand when your data will be multiplied.
The next step now is to multiply the number of responses by the number tagged to such rating e.g.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30x4=120
The calculation in the table above was done to make you understand more. This is how your work should look like.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30
The next step is to total the upper and lower lines.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30
The next step is to divide the total by your sample. The result will be your mean (X). Position your result under the mean column.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30
This is where your criterion mean come in. Remember that criterion mean for four point rating scale is 2.50. So, if the mean you computed is below your criterion mean of 2.50, then you will reject or disagree under Decision Rule.But if the mean you computed is above the criterion mean, then you will accept or agree.Our mean score of 2.44 in the example above is below the criterion mean of 2.50. Therefore, we reject or disagree. Note that you can only use one option throughout. If you choose to use reject and accept, that is what you will use all through. But if you used agree and disagree from the onset, you must use this to the end. For the sake of this study, let us use agree and disagree. See the table below.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30
Note again that you are supposed to calculate your standard (std) deviation (dev) first before going forward to the decision rule column. The writer only skipped std dev for emphasis.
Now, let us go straight to standard deviation proper. The calculation is somehow long but easy if you would follow up. This is how it goes.
Line:1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4 – 2.44 = 1.562=2.4336 x 30= 73.008
3 – 2.44 = 0.562 = 0.3136x 66 = 20.6976
2 – 2.44 = -0.442= 0.1936 x 70 = 13.552
1 – 2.44 = -1.442 = 2.0736 x 30 = 62.208199
169.4656169.4656 = =1.08
Explanation:Line one to eight above are for explanation use only.
Line 1 is gotten from the numeric number attached to each rating e.g.
Line 2 is the mean e.g.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30
In line three (3), you subtract the mean (2.44) from the rating. E.g.
4 – 2.44 = 1.56
3 – 2.44 = 0.56
2 – 2.44 = -0.44
1 – 2.44 = -1.44
In line four (4), you will have to square line three (3). E.g.
-0.442 = 0.1936
-1.442 = 2.0736
In line five (5), you multiply line four (4) by the number of responses from each rating. E.g.
Line six (6) is the result of multiplying line four (4) by line five (5) and adding all the results.
Line:4 5 6
2.4336 x 30 = 73.008
0.3136 x 66 = 20.6976
0.1936 x 70 = 13.552
2.0736 x 30 = 62.208
The next step is to subtract 1 from your sample and divide by the total in line seven (7). For example, the sample we are using here is 200. Subtract 1 from 200 and you will get 199, then divide 199 by 169.4656. e.g.
Line eight (8) is the total of line seven (7) then you square. E.g.
Line: 8 = 1.08
Please, note that this calculation is only for one item. You are required to do this for all the items. So, if your items are sixteen in number, you will be required to do this sixteen times.E.g.
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||30||66||70||30||488||2.44||1.08||Rejected|
|2||The workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments?||——|
|3||The machines are functioning well.||——|
|4||Vocational education can be well taught without the use of adequate facilities.||——|
After calculating yourstandard deviation, you are to explain the table. Let us use a fictitious table for example.
Research question one: To what extend can lack of adequate facilities be responsible for the problems of Vocational Education programme in tertiary institutions in the training of youths?
Table 4.1:Analysis of research question one
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||29
|2||The workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments?||36
|3||The machines are functioning well.||32
|4||Vocational education can be well taught without the use of adequate facilities.||11
Criterion mean 2.50 (Note that this table is fictitious and so some figures may not be correct)
You may explain the table in the following way.
Table 4.1above showed (or you can use revealed) that item 1 and 4 were rejected, while item 2 and 3 were accepted. This is because item 1and 4 which has mean scores of 2.3 and 1.9 respectively were below the criterion mean of 2.50,while item 2 and 3 which has mean scores of 2.9 and 2.6 respectively were accepted because they were above the criterion mean of 2.50. Consequently, the grand mean was computed to be 2.1 which indicated that lack of adequate facilities can be responsible for the problems of Vocational Education programme in tertiary institutions in the training of youths.
Discussions of findings
This is where you will discuss the tables. Remember you talked more on the mean scores during the explanation under each table. Now you are to talk about the items and how respondents responded to themand at the end of it all, you are expected to back your finding with the findings of a previous author you used in your chapter two. The finding you will use to back your own finding must not necessarily be a supporting one, you can also use a finding that goes against your finding.
Translating your items is dependent on respondents’ responses. For example, item one reads: There are vocational/technical workshops in your school. This item had a mean score of 2.3 which indicate rejection or disagree. This means that there are no vocational/technical workshops in most schools. If it was accepted, it would have meant that there are vocational/technical workshops in most schools. What you must know here is that rejection negates the question to the opposite side, so if the statement is positive and it is rejected, the statement becomes negative, e.g.
All education students are brilliant (rejected/disagree)
Translation:All education students are not brilliant
If the statement was negative and it is rejected, this means the statement will become positive.
Education students are not brilliant (rejected/disagree)
Translation: Education students are brilliant
On the otherhand, if the statement was positive and it was accepted, that means the translation will remain as the original statement.
All education students are brilliant (accepted/agree)
Translation:All education students are brilliant
If the statement was negative and it was accepted then the translation will also be negative.
Education students are not brilliant (accepted/agree)
Translation:Education students are not brilliant
Please note that when a statement is accepted, it is translated the way it was placed, but when it is rejected, it is translated the other way round.
Let us now discuss the table above.
Discussions of findings
After a careful analysis, the following findings were discovered. On research question one, on the extentto which lack of adequate facilities can be responsible for the problems of Vocational Education programme in tertiary institutions in the training of youths, it was discovered that there are no vocational/technical workshops in most schools; workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments;the machines are functioning well and that vocational education cannot be well taught without the use of adequate facilities. This corroborated the findings of Eze (2003) who found that most educational institutions in Nigeria lack practical workshops where live experiences could be learned
|1||There are vocational/ technical workshops in your school?||29
|2||The workshops are well equipped with machines and other equipments?||36
|3||The machines are functioning well.||32
|4||Vocational education can be well taught without the use of adequate facilities.||11
Note that the citation to be used in backing your findings should be taken from chapter two. This is a citation that has already been used somewhere in your work. Professionally speaking, it is not right to take just any author to back your study, rather, it should be an author you have used before. In chapter two of your work, you are expected to discuss your purpose of study under different subtopice.g. if you have the following four objectives –
To determine if Education students are brilliant
To determine whether Education students are tall
To determine whether Education students are short
To determine whether Education students are black,
After conceptual review in chapter two, you are to bring your objectives one after the other to review them. Under each objective, you are going to use materials and cite authors’ comments and findings that are related to that objective. Each of the objectives should be discussed separately using citations. So therefore, under discussions of findings, it is these citations that you will bring back to use. When discussing research question one, go back to chapter two, check where you discussed objective one, search for a related comment or finding and use it together with the citation to back your finding. In the event that you do not have a citation to use, then use a popular knowledge or a popular statement like a cliché to back your finding. Some lecturers may not want this pattern. Note that the findings of all questions are to be discussed separately and you have to back them all separately.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Many students use this summary differently. Some use it to summarize from chapter one to four. Most lecturers may not accept this type of summary. In this type of summary, you have to tell your readers the way your work was presented. E.g.
This study was carried out in five chapters. Chapter one dealt with the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two dealt with the review of related literature, theoretical basis, conceptual review, relevance of concepts defined, empirical evidence and summary of chapter two. Chapter three dealt with the methodologies used in carrying out this study, the study design, population, sampling technique, instrumentation, validity, reliability, administration and method of data analysis. Chapter four dealt with the computation of analysis of responses gotten from the questionnaire and discussions of findings, while chapter five dealt with the summary and recommendations of the study (Patani, 2014).
Furthermore, the summary could alsobe used to summarize your discussion of findings. E.g.
The broad purpose for embarking on this study was to investigate the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of accounting courses in Business Education in Niger Delta University. It was discovered that teamwork extra class is a means for improving the teaching and learning of accounting in Business Education; individual homework assignment can be used as a means for improving the teaching and learning of accounting in Business Education; student’s seminars is one of the means for improving the teaching and learning of accounting in Business Education and that library and internet research can be used as a means for improving the teaching and learning of accounting in Business Education(Happy, 2014).
Note that as a researcher, you are at will to use or combine both together in your work if it is so right to you.
Please do not use your conclusion to do what I call ‘carry write’, meaning writing the way you like.Let the conclusion be based on your findingsand purpose of study. E.g.
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were reached.Transportation causes disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural secondary schools. Cost of living affects teachers’ salary. Teachers do not like to teach in communities where there is no light. Teachers will stay in a school where there are good facilities. Good health facilities affect the disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural schools (Asamaowei, 2014).
Educational implication of the study
Educational implication simply means that now that you have found or discovered something, what or how will those findings or discoveries affect the educationalsector or your field of study?
Please watch the educational implication of Asamaowei (2014).
The findings of this study implied the following:
- If transportation causes disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural secondary schools, this showed that teachers use a fair portion of their salaries to pay for transportation before the month ends.
- If cost of living affect teachers’ salary, this shows that most teachers spend almost all their salaries on sustenance expenses.
- If teachers do not like to teach in communities where there is no light, this means that there are few teachers left in communities where there is no light.
- If teachers will stay in a school where there are good facilities, this implied that schools with better facilities retain teachers more than schools that do not have good facilities.
- If good health facilities affect the disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural schools, this implied that teachers do not like teaching in schools without good health facilities.
Limitations of the study
Limitations of the study refer to those setbacks, those barriers, those problems that made the study difficult to carry out. Was it very easy to administer your questionnaires? Were you able to retrieve all your questionnaires? Was the finance you needed to conduct a flawless study readily available? If not, these and more constitute your limitations of study. It is claimed that financial problems should no longer be used as a limitation of study. Whatever the case may be, your supervisor should determine that. Examine the following example:
As in any research project, the researcher encountered some limitations which included time, transportation, accessibility, administration and retrieval of the questionnaire from the respondents. Moreover, it was not all too easy getting respondents to accept and respond to the items as some saw it strange and initially refused to accept it (Asamaowei, 2014).
Research projects are carried out to look into problems, see why such problems exist and proffer possible solutions to them.The process of proffering such solutions is known as recommending or making recommendations. Your project is near incomplete without giving recommendations as to how the problems you found could be solved. The question now is ‘how do you make your recommendations?’
While you are at free will to make as many recommendations as much as possible, it is also worthy of note that your recommendations follow your purpose of study down through to your findings. Professionally, you are supposed to have four recommendations if you have four purposes of study and findings. So the expectation from your supervisor here is that under one finding, you will have to give one recommendation. Recommendation two should be concerned with finding two. The third recommendation should be concerned with the third finding and so with the fourth recommendation.
In the event that you intend to have more than four recommendations, then you should be through with all your recommendations concerning finding one before you go on with any other recommendation concerning finding two. You should follow this pattern to ensure focus and direction. Check the exemplary findings and recommendations ofAsamaowei (2014).
“transportation causes disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural secondary schools; cost of living affect teachers’ salary; teachers do not like to teach in a community where there is no light; teachers will stay in a school where there are good facilities and that good health facilities affects the disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural schools”.
Based on the findings, the researcher made the following recommendations:
- The government should provide transportation or transportation allowances where there are no provisions for transportation so as to assist teachers to save more from their salary.
- The government should also provide accommodation for teachers posted to areas where cost of living is high to compensate for high rent.
- There should be provision of light in areas that do not have electricity to attract commitment of teachers teaching in those areas
- The government should provide adequate facilities in schools to make schools convenient to teach because if the facilities are outdated, there may not be teacher commitment
Suggestions for further study
Suggestions for further studies is concerned with recommending topics which you believe a future researcher can embark upon.You are not to write this section in form of general statement but to introduce the section and give viable and useful topics which your study did not cover but you would want another researcher to carry out a study on.Please, also ensure that the suggestions are somewhat related to your study but not the same with your topic. Check the following example from Daniel (2014).
The researcher suggests that further studies should be conducted on the following topics:
- Comparative study of Accounting Education in increasing student’s performance in Accounting courses in Niger Delta University.
- The role of Business Education to national development. A case study of Niger Delta University
- An investigation of the role of Accounting Education to entrepreneurs: the role of Business Educators.
You may be wondering what is back matter as this word is strange to your hearing especially when it comes to project writing. This is simply the follow-ups after the chapter five and they are simply your references, appendices and any other useful information attached to the end of your work. First of all, let us treat the references.
In academics, we have many bodies or associations whom have set out standards of documentation to follow when citing authorities (authors) and referencing such authorities at the end of your work. The two major ones I want to treat here are American Psychological Association (APA) and the Modern Language Association (MLA). Because this work is directed to students in the Faculty of Education, we shall talk more on the APA format. This will be so because most (if not all) Education Departments adopts the APA format. The MLA is mainly used by the English and Literary Department, Nursing amongst other Faculties and Departments which is not really our concern here. But I will urge you to make your own research on the MLA format for the purpose of knowledge acquisition.
The method and format of the American Psychological Association
(APA) is multitudinal. This is because there are different ways of documenting different sources of information.As far as I am concern, I know what students like, so I do not want to bore you with the plenty processes to follow when documenting (citing and referencing) authorities. What I will do here is to give you the basics.
The first issue here is the citation. What are citations? This simply means documenting or penning down the names of authors who made a particular statement that you have used in your work. You are to write down the name(s) of author(s) and the year such book from which such statement was adopted was published.E.g. let us take this example from Obro (2014):
Olorumoku and Agbede (2012), asserts that education is a key to national development because it unlocks the economic potential of the people, empowers and equips individuals in the society to participate in and benefit from the national economy, …
Let us consider another example from Benimo (2014):
The school environment which include the classroom, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers quality, school management, teaching methods, peers etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajao, 2001; Oluchukwu, 2000).
Please, note how the two citations were made. The brackets in the former citation covers only the year – Olorumoku and Agbede (2012), while the later covers both the authors’ name and the year -(Ajao, 2001; Oluchukwu, 2000). Why is this so?
Note that Olorumoku and Agbede (2012)came before the statement or quote, therefore, in this regard you are to bracket only the year. But when the name and the year is coming after the quote, you will have to bracket both the author(s)’ name and the yeare.g. (Ajao, 2001; Oluchukwu, 2000). If it is only oneauthor, then let it look like this. (Ajao, 2001).
Other issues in citations:
- In-text quotation
- Ibiden or ibid
- Opere Citato(Op. cit)
The In-text Quotation
This refers to quoting an authorin your work. If the line of the passage is less than four lines, you will quote it together with your sentence. Take this example from Wosu (2014).
It is in view of this that Hauwa and Bharti (2005), observed that homes are usually broken up by death and increasingly by divorce, abandonment or involuntary separation as a result of job demand or other obligations.
But if the quote is more than four lines, then you are to shift the left and right margins inward by half inch each. E.g.
Nevertheless, Hauwa and Bharti (2005), observe that as children grow older, loss of the father is often more serious than loss of mother, especially for boys. The mother may have to go work and with the double burden of home making and outside work, the mother may lack the time and energy to care for the children. Consequently, they feel neglected and become resentful if mothers are unable to provide the recreational opportunities and statues symbols children’s peers have. This will add to their resentment.
The Ibiden (ibid)
The ibiden or ibid is used to refer to a previously cited authority. For example, if you have cited Michael (2009), then on the next or the same paragraph you quoted Michael again and ought to document the same authority twice. In this case, you may not need to write Michael (2009) again, rather, you write (ibid). In case the authority came before the quote, then you cannot say “according to ibid (2009). This is not usually done. In that case you will have to repeat the name of the author. You can only use the ibid when the authority is coming last. Check the following example.
Nevertheless, Hauwa and Bharti (2005), observe that as children grow older, loss of the father is often more serious than loss of mother, especially for boys. The mother may have to go work and with the double burden of home making and outside work, the mother may lack the time and energy to care for the children. Consequently, they feel neglected and become resentful, if mothers are unable to provide the recreational opportunities and statues symbols children’s peers have. This will add to their resentment.
Students in this case may lack a lot of fatherly adviser on their career choice as a student compare to those from a stable home or whose fathers are alive. For older boys, loss of the father means that they have no source of identification as their friends had, and they resent petticoat rule in the home as they do in school (ibid).
In the example above the ibid represents Hauwa and Bharti (2005). So as a researcher, you have the free will to either repeat the authority or use ibid. either of these is correct.
The Opere Citato (Op. Cit)
The op. cit is slightly different from the ibid. It is used to refer to the upper previously documented authority. The op. cit and the ibiden are close associates. The difference is that while ibid refers to the previous author, the op. cit refers to the author before the previous author. It is as exemplified in Ominigbo (2014) (Ed.).
According to Amaewhule (2003), teaching practice is an important aspect of education because it prepares student teachers for their future teaching roles and assignments. Osuala (2004)noted that teaching practice exposes the student teacher to the reality of effective teaching and help them to try out methods of teaching and gain practical classroom experience under expert supervision.
Teaching practice is the most vital part of student teacher’s career, ++this is because it is during this practice that the student teachers applies the methods, even the philosophy of education which he or she was taught theoretically in classroom (op. cit).
The op. cit here represents Amaewhule (2003).
This refers to books written by organizations, they don’t use individual names like Amaewhule (2003), instead you will have to seek for the name of the organization and use it as the name of the authority.This is exemplified in Owan (2014).
Educators and policymakers should be concerned about the relationship between student learning and achievement and school facilities. Educators and policymakers must also be concerned about the health, security, and psychological issues (TACR, 2003).
According to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching [CFAT](1990), the physical condition of schools affected the climate for teaching and learning. “Buildings that are poorly maintained, dirty, unattractive, crowded, and unsafe send powerful negative messages to teachers and students” (CFAT, 1990).
According to Building Educational Success Together [BEST](2005), it was the responsibility of educators in every state to ensure that every child had access to a quality education in school facilities that provide an educational setting that was suited for teaching and learning. Implementing policies that resulted in high quality, high-performing, well-designed and maintained school facilities had a direct and indirect impact on the teaching and learning process (BEST, 2005).
Materials from websites could also be cited. Most materials in the web have authors but not paginated. You are still going to cite them the way you cited book authors. The difference will appear in the references. Instead of showing the pages, in web sourced materials you are going to show the website you retrieve such information from.More information on this is featured in the next few pages.
In the event that the material does not have an author, you are free to use the name of the website (domain name) as the authority.
How to referenceyour citations
When it comes to referencing citations, students are fond of the attitude of not being meticulous. For one thing, they may have twenty citations in their work, but may only reference ten authorities. For the other, they may have only ten citations but have fifty references. Truly, I don’t really understand where they got all these ideas from. You are supposed to have ten references ‘if’ and ‘only if’’you have ten citations. You are also supposed to have twenty references only if you have twenty citations. So, the amount of your references should tally with the number of your citations. This being said, let us now go straight to how you can reference your citations.
In referencing your work, every dot, commas, full stop, colon etc. matters a lot. Please ensure that any sign you see here are reflected in your work. You must not be too negligent as to forget these signs. We shall start this section with books. When referencing a book, this is the format to follow.
The last name of author, which is the surname and a comma comes first. E.g.(Michael,) then initials of first name and other name if any (O. J.)then year (2015). Then name of bookin italics (Project made easy; a step by step guide on project writing). Then place of publication follow by a colon (Yenagoa:), then name of publisher (MJERC Publishers). See the reference below:
Michael, O. J. (2015). Project made easy; a step by step guide on project writing. Yenagoa: MJERC Publishers
After the author’s last name which is the surname, there must be a comma (,). Also, after each of the initials there must be a fullstop. Further, after the bracket closing the year, there must be a fullstop. The title of the book should be in italics, that is, it should be slanted (e.g. slanted). After the place of publication, you should add a colon(:). The publisher’s name should end it all. As a writer, if you intend any part of your work to be italicized (e.g. like the title of the book) by the typist, you are to underline such line so that when the typist sees it, he/she will understand that such line ought to be in italics. But because most typists do not know this, they may underline the line for you too, so you are to inform them on what to do.
Journals are regular publications that contain articles on current research. It is expected that the author of a journal had conducted a study on a field of study and came up with new findings. So, academic journals are always about studies. They will prove to be of great use to you during your project writing. Journals are almost referenced the same way as books, the difference is that instead of including place of publication and publisher as in the case of books, you will indicate the type of journal, the number, edition and pagenumber. It is as represented below.
Boyle, T. (2007). Designing for usability and effectiveness in a resource rich learning system. East-west journal of computers in education, 1, 37-45.
Gagne, R. M. (2004). Learning outcomes and their effects: Useful categories of human performance. American psychologist, 39, 377-385
Gertel, S., McCarty, P., & Schoff, L. (2004). High performance schools equals high performing students. Educational facility planner, 39, 20-2
Hale, O. (2002). Improving performance. American school and university, 75, 32-35.
Lewis, C.C., Schaps, E., & Watson, M. S. (2006). The caring classroom’s academic edge. Educational leadership, 54, 16-21.
When referencing dailies, you must include the name of author of the article you cited followed by the year, the title of article, name of the dailyand page used. If you retrieved the information from the internet, you are free to add the internet source to it. E.g.
Asiagwu, E. E (2005).The level of educational facility decay in Nigeria. Lagos: Vanguard Newspaper, 5-6. Retrieved February 20th, 2014from http://www.vanguardnewspaper.com/the-level-of-educational-decay-in-Nigeria.html
The date of retrieval should be the day you sourced the information from the web.
Up till this very moment, some students still don’t know the difference between projects, dissertation and thesis. The single difference is that project is for first degree, dissertation is for second degree (M.Sc), while thesis is for P.hd.When referencing projects, dissertation and thesis, the same format is used. The way name, initials, year and title of book appears in referencing books is the same way project, dissertation and thesis will be. The difference is that you will have to indicate if the project was published or not, the place and university it was submitted to. It is as follows:
Ajayi, I. A. (1999). Unit cost of secondary eucation and students’ academic achievement in Ondo State Nigeria(1991–1995).Unpublished Ph. D Dissertation, Ibadan: University of Ibadan.
Buadi, J. Y. (2000). School and personality as correlates of student attitudes to the school guidance services in secondary schools. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Abraka: Delta State University.
McMillan, P. (2012). Relative effectiveness of two approaches based on mastery of learning strategy on students’ achievement in English grammatical structures. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Ibadan: University of Ibadan.
No title web sources
There are certain works that you will see online that has no authors. How do you cite or reference such works? During citation, you will need to use the domain name as the author. E.g.
A classroom is a room in which teaching or learning activities can take place. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, including public and private schools, home schools, corporations, and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to provide a safe space where learning can take place uninterrupted by other distractions, (www.abcd.eg.com).
When referencingthe citation, the title of the work will have to come first, followed by the year and the domain name (website) you retrieve the work from. This is to say…
Global economic meltdown: its effect in Nigeria. (2008). Retrieved July 20th, 2009 from www.abcd.eg.com
Appendix (singular) or appendices (plural) is the last thing to come up in your work.Appendix comprises mainly your questionnaireand any other information you may have used in your work,e.g. the names of schools used, figures, charts etc. Note that this information could be used inside the work, but where your supervisor demand you take them to appendix, this is where they have to appear in your appendix.
The questionnaire is an instrument for collection of primary data. It is prepared to contain items aimed at collecting information based on the study in question. Your questionnaire is to begin with a letter of introduction addressed to the respondent(the person to answer the items in the questionnaire).The letter should contain the address of the researcher. The letter is written to assure the respondent that the information requested from him would be treated confidential. The letter should take a whole page of its own. The next page is the questionnaire itself. It is divided into two sections, section A and B. Section A should contain personal or demographic data but the name of the respondent should not be sought for. Section B contains the research items based on the research questions. It is as representedbelow.
Letter of Introduction and Questionnaire
Department of Educational Foundations,
Faculty of Education,
Niger Delta University,
I am a final year student of the above named university currently carrying out a research work on the topic: Student’s Attributes and their Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools of Patani Local Government Area, Delta State.
I therefore solicit for your maximum cooperation in responding to the items in this questionnaire.
This exercise is purely an academic one needed as part of the requirement for graduation from the university. Any information you give will be highly appreciated and treated as confidential.
Ebikibena Linda Ebiere,
(Adapted from Ebikibena, 2014)
Student’s Attributes and their Academic Performance in Economics Questionnaire (SAAPEQ)
Section A:Demographic Data of Respondents
Instruction:Please supply the information below as it applies to you. Check ( ) in the following boxes provided, as it is applicable to you.
- Class: SS.1: SS.2: SS.3:
- Sex: Male: Female:
- Parental Socio-economic Status: Low: Middle: High:
- Age:Below13-15yrs: 16-18 yrs:19years and above:
- School Location: Urban:Rural:
Section B: Please check ( ) in the box provided that is most suitable to you.
Please, note that SA = Strongly Agree, A = Agree, D = Disagree and SD = Strongly Disagree.
|1||Age influence academic performance|
|2||Younger students perform better than older students academically|
|3||Older students perform better than Younger students academically|
|4||There is no relationship between age and academic performance|
|5||School location influence students’ performance in Economics|
|6||Type of school attended influence performance in Economics|
|7||Urban students perform better than rural students|
|8||Environment influence student’s performance in Economics|
|9||There is a relationship between parental income and student’s performance in Economics|
|10||Students with low socio-economic background perform poorly|
|11||Students with high socio-economic background perform better academically|
|12||Parents with high social economic background are more sensitive to their children performance at school|
|13||Gender difference affects students’ performance in Economics|
|14||Male students perform better than their female counterparts|
|15||Female students perform better than their male counterparts|
|16||Economics is a difficult subject.|
It is not compulsory that you use the same format but these rules should guide you.
TYPING, EDITING AND PRINTING(What you must know)
You are from this moment informed that typists could contribute to the problems you will face in your study. Therefore, you are advised to look for a good typist that hasa very good knowledge in project typing as projects are not typed the way you type your assignments. You must guide your typist when typing your work. Most typists are fond of using larger font to increase the total number of pages of the project in order to increase the total money received from you. If you use font 14 for a 50 paged project, font 16 may give you 60 pages or more. Therefore, you must stay with your typist to ensure he/she abides by what you want. This is where your knowledge matters because you cannot give what you don’t have. This will be very stressful for you because most of the typist will be very busy then so it may even take you a whole day sitting by your typist and editing your work. Therefore, endurance counts.
My favorite fonts are Times New Roman or Bookman Old Style. You may want to try these. Or if you are a good computer operator and you have good computer skills before now, then you must have had a favorite font. Whatever the case may be, ensure that the font you are to use will make your work look finer.
Professionally, I willadvise you use font 14. Font 16 is seemingly too large while font 12 may be too small.
A standard project spacing is double line. Very few times you see projects typed with 1.5 line spacing. You mayhave committed no crime in using double line spacing, it is the recommended spacing.
Please, use the margins of this textbook as example for your work.Margins refer to the two sides of the work. It refers to the beginning line and the ending line. The two left and right bars are used to indicate the left and right margins.
Your topics should be in full capital letters e.g.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
All subtopics should be in initial capitals e.g.
- Background to the Study (or study)
- Statement of the Problem (or problem)
- Purpose of the Study (or study)
- Research Questions (or questions)
- Significance of the Study(or study)
- Scope of the Study (or study)
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms (or definition of terms)
Some supervisors may want you to use initial capital only for the starting word while the rest words uses small letter all through, while some others may want you to use initial capital for all letters.
Always avoid one-lineparagraphs. By this we mean paragraphs that contain only few lines. Each of the paragraphs in your work therefore should contain a minimum of two to three paragraphs. Remember paragraphs are used to separate ideas, so you are to move to another paragraph when you are moving on to the next idea. Your Chapter One should start from 1.1 instead of 1.0
The places you are likely to see boxes in your workare chapter three under population or sample size,that is, if you tabulate the names of schools you used for the study. Next is chapter four for your demographic information and research questions. When you are formatting your boxes, ensure to use compressed single line spacing to make the box look superfine. Also, use font twelve or eleven to make it look smaller in size.
In order to compress your line spacing in Microsoft Word, trace the line spacing icon in the ribbon on top the screen
Line Spacing Options
Add Space Before Paragraph
AddSpace After Paragraph
Click on it and you will see the following box
|Line Spacing Options
Then, click on line spacing options that is highlighted above, then you will see a box pop up. Trace the box down to Spacing. Under spacing,you will see the following check boxes
Before: Line Spacing: At:
This is exactly what you will see. If you change the spacing before and after to 0 pt and 0ptrespectively, while the line spacing is changed to single, then your lines will be very close to each other. This system is also very good for referencing.
The project defense day is the day to present the work you have studied. Many students fret on hearing the word ‘defense’, but it doesn’t really have to be that way. It was believed that you have carried out a study, you are therefore expected to present or tell your supervisors how you carried out the study. In defending your project, there are many things you must consider. They are as follows:
- Your topic
- Research questions
- Methodologies used (i.e. research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity, reliability, administration and method of data analysis)
- Analysis of data and results (i.e. discussion of findings)
- Recommendations etc.
Although it is good to prepare yourself and read your work all through before facing the defense panel, it is worthy of note that you focus on the main issues as it is virtually impossible they will require you to talk on all aspect of the study e.g. from chapter one to five. So therefore, you are to focus on the key areas mentioned above. This is a typical way to defend your study.
The topic under review is (put your topic here).The study was conducted in (describe your scope of study here or where you conducted the study). The researcher embarked on this study in order to (outline your four objectives here). Four questions where therefore posed in order to guide the study. These include (put your research questions here). The descriptive survey design (or whatever design you used) was adopted for the study. The study was conducted using a population of (put your population here) with a sample of (put your sample here). The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire instrument. The instrument was drafted to contain a letter of introduction to the respondent and two other sections – A and B. The letter addressed to the respondent was written to assure the respondent that the information given by him would be treated with utmost confidentiality. Section A was focused on demographic data collection while section B contained items based on the research questions. After drafting, the instrument was submitted to the supervisor and other research expert who made alterations and corrections to it. The instrument was therefore validated after all corrections were effected. In order to ascertain the reliability of the instrument, the test re-test method was used to administer copies of the questionnaire twice, the results were therefore correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). The result which yielded (indicate your result here – it is usually between 1.0 to 0.0) indicated that the instrument was highly reliable. The instrument was therefore distributed to (indicate how many was distributed, that is, the total number of your sample). The data retrieved from the instrument were analyzed using statistical mean and standard deviation. The result indicated that (bring your four findings here). To this effect, it was concluded that (bring your conclusion here). Finally, recommendations were made as to proffering solutions to the problem. These recommendations included (bring your recommendations here). Then look forfew sentences to conclude everything. You must be brief here because by now you must have done a very good defense.
One thing you must notice here is the way the defense is streamlined. Everything flowed from one point to another. You don’t need to go to chapter five then come back to chapter three. Also notice that chapter two was not included here because you have less business with chapter two. This is not to say you will not read your chapter two as some lecturers may decide to ask you some questions from that chapter. In any case, what they will ask you may not be more than the theoretical framework, and empirical evidence. They may not have the time to ask you to start defining terms.
STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT
Table of contents
List of tables
List of figures (if any)
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis (if any)
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework (i.e. Related Theories) if any
2.2 Conceptual Review (i.e. Essential Concepts in the Study)
2.3 Relevance of these Concepts to the Field of Study
2.4 Empirical Evidence (i.e. Recent Studies in Relation to the Study)
2.5 Summary of Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Instrumentation (i.e. Description of the Instrument(s) used)
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
3.7 Administration of the Instrument/Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Analysis of Demography (Personal) Variables
4.2 Analysis of Research Question
4.3 Test of Research Hypothesis (if any)
4.4 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary (i.e. highlights of the Main Results)
5.2 Conclusion (Drawn from Study)
5.3 Educational Implications of the Study
5.5 Limitations of the Study
5.6 Suggestions for Further Research
SOME RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- When a researcher uses superscript in citing consulted works, he employs which method of documentation? (a) APA (b) MLA (c) Chicago Manual Style (d) a and b
- Which of these is correct about a book with an editor and various authors? (a) the editor is mentioned before the author (b) the author is mentioned before the editor (c) either the editor or the author comes first (d) title comes before the author and the editor
- ____ best describes ‘as cited above’. (a) same author (b) same page (c) same work (d) all of the above
- Which of these does not appear at the end of the work? (a) works cited (b) end notes (c) foot notes (d) none of the above
- ____ is not an item in an end note? (a) author’s first name (b) author’s surname (c) author’s initials (d) none of the above
- ‘The Glory Days’ is a chapter in ‘The Morning Dews’. Which of these is correct? (a) the glory days should be underlined (b) the morning dews should be underlined (c) the articles in both should be omitted (d) none of the above.
- If your reference appears at the base of your work, such a reference is called ___ (a) base note (b) page note (c) end note (d) foot note
- The acronym APA means ___ (a) American Physiological Association (b) American Physical Association (c) African Psychological Association (d) none of the above
- The correct w3ay of alphabeticizing an anonymous work is by the ___ (a) date of publication (b) title of the work (c) publication details (d) place of publication
- Which of these is not an object of research? (a) man (b) society (c) concept (d) none of the above
- The two major objects of research are ___ (a) empirical, natural (b) empirical, man (c) rational, empirical (d) analytic, rational
- When ‘trans’ is used in an entry, it means (a) translated by persons (b) translated (c) translation (d) all of the above
- To begin an entry in an internet work, without an author, you ___ (a) quote the title (b) script the title (c) underline the title (d) state the website
- Which of these is a major aim of research? (a) investigation (b) examination (c) problem solving (d) all of the above
- On the work cited page, when you see a range of pages from which a quotation is taken from the in-text, you know that the quotation is likely to come from a/an (a) article (b) book (c) newspaper (d) journal
- ___ is the most efficient way of finding an online publication (a) through the title (b) through the URL (c) through the author (d) by the date of the publication
- To indicate when a work of art is created, you, ___ (a) add the date before title (b) add the date immediately after the title (c) underline the date (d) date the work
- Using ‘pp’ in documentation means (a) pagination (b) past page (c) point pages (d) pages
- Which of these is not included in the table of content? (a) volume (b) dedication (c) acknowledgements (d) title page
- To arrive at objectivity in research, we must approach it ___ (a) dispassionately (b) emotionally (c) passionately (d) intellectually
- Displaying one’s personal bias in a research makes it to be ___ (a) personalized (b) subjective (c) private (d) objective
- One of these methods of collecting information does not give accuracy of observation (a) relative (b) valid (c) reliable (d) standardized
- A tentative solution in a research work is called ___ (a) suggestion (b) hypothesis (c) thesis (d) guess
- ‘Ed’ means ___ (a) editor (b) edition (c) editorials (d) all of the above
- What does URL means? (a) uniform relocation loader (b) uniform resource loader (c) uniform resource locator (d) uniform range locator
- If a researcher uses a work by a single author as a first superscript and uses another work by the same author but co-authored with another authored as a second superscript, which of these properly represents the document? (a) ibid (b) citing the single author and followed by the double authorship (c) citing the double authorship before the single one (d) op.cit
- Once you fail to acknowledge the source of information in your work, you are guilty of ___ (a) copying (b) documentation ignorance (c) plagiarism (d) inefficiency
- Research does not enhance development in one of the following fields (a) management (b) education (c) technology (d) none of the above
- Sometimes, a research can be excused for not offering solution to a problem (a) true (b) false (c) unknown (d) none of the above
- Research is aimed at generating which of these? (a) hypothesis (b) theories (c) laws (d) all of the above
- One of these is common to all fields of investigation (a) problem (b) empirical data (c) oral review (d) all of the above
- Which of these does a learner not enjoy from a research? (a) acquisition of logical analysis (b) developing other fields (c) developing rational reasoning (d) none of the above
- ___ is one of the problems a research addresses (a) cultural (b) economic (c) political (d) all of the above
- Research allows for one of these characteristics (a) introduction (b) writing a problem (c) generation (d) prediction
- Observation, description and explanation are all features of ___ (a) research problem (b) research objective (c) research purpose (d) research introduction
- Accurate research results depends on ___ (a) subjectivity (b) personality (c) objectivity (d) none of the above
- Any objective research should be ___ (a) privately investigated (b) communally investigated (c) publicly investigated (d) institutionally investigated
- ___ s not a process of research (a) identifying a problem (b) choosing a topic (c) writing a proposal (d) all of the above
- If a quotation is more than four lines, what does a researcher do? (a) indent (b) paraphrase (c) quote (d) cite in-text
- Assuming we are documenting a book written by two authors with surnames as Ajusi and Akogu, while their respective first names are Johnson and Markson, how do we arrange their names in our reference page using the APA format? (a) Ajusi, J. & Akogu Markson (b) Ajusi Johnson & Akogu, M.(c) Ajusi, J. & Akogu, M. (d) all of the above
- Which of these is not likely to be in the documentation of an encyclopedia? (a) volume (b) edition (c) place of publication (d) none of the above
- ‘Eds’ means ___ (a) two books are edited (b) one editor (c) two or more editors (d) two or more editions
- Aghogho (2011:23) is an example of ___ (a) in-text citation (b) documentation (c) reference (d) bibliography
- The contributions a research makes in the areas of cultural, economic and religious advancement is situated in which area of the research? (a) nature (b) scope (c) aim/significance (d) background
- ___ is not likely to appear in the reference page (a) title of articles (b) books (c) journals (d) questionnaire
- In citation, once a researcher paraphrases, a quotation mark should be used to separate his ideas from those of his source (a) true (b) false (c) unknown (d) probably
- When citations are superscript, we ___ on the reference page (a) arrange the authors’ names alphabetically (b) follow the order of the numbering (c) follow the order of the date of publication (d) all of the above
- ___ is not part of the background to a study (a) overview of subject (b) history of key issues (c) explaining the subject (d) none of the above
- ___ defines a proposal (a) a thesis (b) a guideline (c) a comprehensive aim (d) none of the above
- Which of these is not a source of information for our research? (a) primary (b) secondary (c) tertiary (d) all of the above
- ___ does not constitute a problem to be addressed in a research (a) finance (b) time (c) lack of literatures (d) none of the above
- Literature review can be described by the following except (a) work of others on the issue under review (b) work of the author under focus (c) gap to be filled (d) none of the above
- Which of these is the correct APA in-text citation? (a) year, page (b) author, page (c) author, others (d) author, year
- Long quotation of more than four lines are usually ___ (a) spaced (b) to the right (c) indented (d) centralized
- Footnote is for APA, while endnote is for MLA (a) true (b) false (c) sometimes (d) right
- In MLA documentation, one among these pairs is correct in the order of arrangement (a) year, page (b) year, publisher (c) publisher, author (d) publisher, place of publication
- When documenting a book by a corporate body using the MLA method, which of these is right to be done? (a) look for an author (b) begin with the author (c) omit the article (d) begin with the title
- What takes the place of an anonymous author in a book? (a) date of publication (b) volume of the work (c) title of the work (d) none of the above
- Citing gaps to be filled in a work of others makes one’s work to be ___ (a) reviewed (b) justified (c) a solution (d) purposeful
- One of these is a major classification of quotation (a) indentation, non-indentation (b) direct, indirect (c) indented, italicized (d) all of the above
- Research is associated with one of these (a) investigation (b) experimentation (c) examination (d) all of the above
(Adopted from the Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Delta State University, Abraka. Second Semester, 2012/2013 Session PHIL112: Introduction to Research Methods)
SOME EDUCATIONALLY RELATED PROJECT TOPICS
|1||Causes of test anxiety among secondary school students and counselling implication in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|2||Enhancing entrepreneurial skills through a sustainable business education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa and Rivers States|
|3||Challenges of career development among business education students in Niger Delta University|
|4||Student’s characteristic and their academic performance in religious studies in Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|5||Identifying effective marketing strategies in business education as a tool for the development of small scale enterprises in Yenagoa Metropolis|
|6||Motivational influences on consumer buying behaviour in tertiary institutions: (a case study of Niger Delta University)|
|7||Influence of divorce on students’ academic achievement in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|8||Strategies for improving the teaching and learning of accounting courses in business education in Niger Delta University|
|9||Problems of single parenthood on educational development of the Nigerian child (a case study of Isoko South Local Government Area)|
|10||Students’ attributes and their academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools of Patani Local Government Area, Delta State|
|11||Challenges of educational facilities for effective learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary school system: a case study of Yenagoa Local Government Area|
|12||Factors influencing consumer’s choice in the purchase of goods and services in Bayelsa Metropolis|
|13||The impact of computer technology on accounting system and effects on employment|
|14||Investigation of reasons for disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|15||Causes of aggressive behaviour among secondary school students in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|16||The influence of home background on career choice of secondary school students in Sagbama Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|17||The impact of information communication technology on the teaching and learning of business education in selected secondary schools in Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|18||Problems and prospects of business education programme in Nigeria: a case study of Niger Delta University, Wilberforce island, Bayelsa State|
|19||Availability and utilization of school plant in teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Yenagoa Metropolis|
|20||Analysis of factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of basic science in junior secondary school in Bayelsa State|
|21||A study of the sources of stress among secondary school teachers in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|22||The influence of teacher/student relationship on students’ academic performance in English Language in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|23||Influence of broken homes on academic performance of secondary school students in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|24||Gender discrimination and its effects on economic development in Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|25||Influence of principals’ supervisory competencies on teacher’s use of instructional materials in lesson delivery in selected secondary schools in Bayelsa State|
|26||The adequacy of entrepreneurship education and its impact on the economic development in higher education institution in Bayelsa State|
|27||Vocational education: a tool for effective economic and industrial development on large scale industry|
|28||The influence of school environment on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in Southern-Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria|
|29||Causes of high dropout rate among female secondary school students in Southern Ijaw Local Government|
|30||Problems of vocational education programmes in tertiary institutions in the training of youths|
|31||Benefits of teaching practice to students teachers in the faculty of education in Niger Delta University|
|32||Evaluating attitude of business studies teachers towards utilization of instructional materials in Bayelsa State junior secondary school system|
|33||Introduction of entrepreneurship education in business education curriculum in higher institutions of Nigeria: a case study of Niger Delta University|
|34||The impact of student’s industrial training scheme on business education students|
|35||Teacher efficiency and students discipline in secondary schools in Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|36||An investigation into the perceived fear of retirement affecting teachers productivity in selected secondary schools in Ughelli South Local Government Area, Delta State.|
|37||Effects of poor classroom management on student’s academic achievement in secondary schools in Nembe Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|38||Factorsinfluencing attitude of secondary school students towards teaching as a career in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|39||Influenceof socio-economic background on the academic performance of student in business studies in Yenagoa Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State|
|40||Thechallenges faced in the management of private secondary schools in Abraka metropolis, Delta State.|
|41||Developingaccounting skills through effective utilization of instructional technology in accounting education programme in Niger Delta University Bayelsa State|
|42||Analysisof utilization of internet facilities among secondary schools in Burutu Local Government Area of Delta State|
|43||Problemsand prospects of teaching and learning agricultural science in secondary schools in Ogbia Local Government Area in Bayelsa State.|
|44||Anassessment of employee’s motivational factors and job performance in Bayelsa State Ministry of Education|
|45||Factorsmilitating against effective teaching and learning of economics in Yenagoa L.G.A|
|46||Strategiesfor improving the teaching and learning of accounting courses in business education in Niger Delta University|
|47||Factorsthat affects the implementation of universal basic education in Bayelsa State: a case study of Ogbia Local Government Area|
|48||Vocationaleducation: a tool for effective economic development and its effects on small scale businesses|
|49||Effectsof improvised instructional materials on student’s academic achievement in accounting among senior secondary school students in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|50||Strategy for effective utilization of information and communication technology in accounting education in Niger Delta University|
|51||Effectof motivation on the productivity of teachers in public and private secondary schools in Amassoma, Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|52||Resource management and effective administration of principals of secondary schools in Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|53||Therate of female students’ dropout and its implication on society in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|54||Teachers’ readiness to integrate information and communication technology into teaching and learning process in Ekeremor Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|55||Academicperformance among senior secondary school students in economics in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria|
|56||Problemsof classroom management in some selected secondary schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area, Delta State|
|57||Effectsof proper classroom management by teachers on the performance of students in selected secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State.|
|58||Utilizationof information and communication technology in teaching business studies in secondary schools in Nembe Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|59||Managementinformation system for improved administrative performance in Yenagoa Local Government Area secondary schools|
|60||Asurvey of employees’ expectations of work competencies needed by business education graduates for gainful employment|
|61||Impactof resources management in secondary schools in Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|62||Factorsaffecting students’ academic performances in secondary schools in Kolokuma/Opokuma Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|63||Student’s attitudes towards industrial work experience scheme and its impact on job preparedness in business education in Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.|
|64||Comparative survey on the academic performance of secondary school students with single parent and that of both parents in Sagbama Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|65||TheNiger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) and rural development: a case study of Ekeremor Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|66||Impactof reward system on students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State|
|67||Teacherefficiency and students discipline in secondary schools in Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
|68||Effectsof proper classroom management on student’s academic performance in selected secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State|
|69||Developingaccounting skills through effective accounting education programmes in secondary schools in Ekeremor Local Government Area of Bayelsa State|
Akpoebi, S. A. (2014). Causes of test anxiety among secondary school students and counselling implication in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Alazigha, A. A. (2014). A study of the sources of stress among secondary school teachers in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Asamaowei, S. (2014). Investigation of reasons for disparity in teachers’ distribution between urban and rural secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Benimo (2014). The influence of school environment on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in Southern-Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Bristol, I. W. (2014). Enhancing entrepreneurial skills through a sustainable business education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa and Rivers States. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Daniel, H. N. (2014). Strategies for improving the teaching and learning of accounting courses in business education in Niger Delta University. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Dike, F. O. (2014). Identifying effective marketing strategies in business education as a tool for the development of small scale enterprises in Yenagoa Metropolis. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Ebikibena, L. E. (2014). Students’ attributes and their academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools of Patani Local Government Area, Delta State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Ivwighre, B. (2014). Influence of principals’ supervisory competencies on teacher’s use of instructional materials in lesson delivery in selected secondary schools in Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Julius, M. O. (2014). Problems of classroom management in some selected secondary schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area, Delta State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Obro, R. E. (2014). The adequacy of entrepreneurship education and its impact on the economic development in higher education institution in Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Oguara, P. (2014). Problems of vocational education programmes in tertiary institutions in the training of youths. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Okoro, O. S. (2014). Ensuring quality in the teaching of accounting in secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Okubo-ere, P. (2014). The impact of computer technology on accounting system and effects on employment. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Ominigbo, M. H. (2014). Benefits of teaching practice to students teachers in the faculty of education in Niger Delta University. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Owan, M. M. (2014). Challenges of educational facilities for effective learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary school system: a case study of Yenagoa Local Government Area. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Owotubo N. (2014). Factors influencing consumer’s choice in the purchase of goods and services in Bayelsa Metropolis. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Patani, C. T. (2014). Challenges of career development among business education students in Niger Delta University. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Sunday, H. (2014). Causes of aggressive behaviour among secondary school students in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Tuoma, R. (2014). The impact of information communication technology on the teaching and learning of business education in selected secondary schools in Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Ukpe, G. I. (2014). Availability and utilization of school plant in teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Yenagoa Metropolis. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Teacher, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.
Wosu, S. O. (2014). Influence of broken homes on academic performance of secondary school students in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Wilberforce Island:An unpublished project submitted to the Department of Teacher, Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State.